How To Make Wool Yarn: A Step-By-Step Guide

Looking to make your own wool yarn? Making wool yarn by hand is a satisfying craft that allows you to create unique, custom yarns perfect for your knitting and crochet projects. With some wool roving, hand carders, and a spinning wheel or drop spindle, you’ll be spinning wool into yarn in no time.

In this comprehensive guide, we’ll walk you through every step of the wool yarn making process, from selecting and preparing fibers to spinning, plying, and finishing your homemade yarn.

If you’re short on time, here’s a quick answer to your question: To make wool yarn, you need to prepare washed wool roving, use hand carders to align the fibers, spin the roving into singles on a spinning wheel or drop spindle, ply two or more singles together, and finish the yarn by washing, drying, and steaming it.

Choosing and Preparing Wool Fibers

Selecting Wool Roving

When it comes to making wool yarn, one of the first steps is choosing the right wool roving. Wool roving is the loose, fluffy fiber that is used to create yarn. It comes in a variety of colors and textures, allowing you to create unique and beautiful yarns.

When selecting wool roving, it’s important to consider the type of wool, the staple length, and the fiber diameter. Some popular breeds of wool include Merino, Shetland, and Bluefaced Leicester, each with its own unique characteristics.

The staple length refers to the length of the individual fibers, which can affect the strength and durability of the yarn. The fiber diameter, measured in microns, determines the softness and fineness of the yarn.

By considering these factors, you can choose the wool roving that best suits your project.

Scouring and Drying the Wool

Once you have selected your wool roving, the next step is to prepare it for spinning. This involves scouring, or washing, the wool to remove any dirt, grease, or impurities. To do this, fill a basin with warm water and a gentle wool detergent.

Gently submerge the wool in the water, being careful not to agitate or rub it too much, as this can cause felting. Allow the wool to soak for about 15 minutes, then gently squeeze out the excess water. Rinse the wool thoroughly, and repeat the process if necessary.

After washing, carefully lay the wool flat on a clean towel to dry. Avoid wringing or twisting the wool, as this can cause it to lose its shape. Once the wool is dry, it is ready to be carded or combed before spinning.

For more detailed instructions and tips on choosing and preparing wool fibers, you can visit websites such as Interweave or The Spruce Crafts.

Carding the Wool

Carding is an essential step in the process of making wool yarn. It helps to align the fibers, remove any tangles or debris, and create a smooth, consistent texture. There are two main components to carding wool: understanding hand carders and carding wool into rolags.

Understanding Hand Carders

Hand carders are tools used to separate and align the fibers of the wool. They consist of two paddles with wire teeth that are held together with a handle. The teeth on the hand carders help to remove any tangles and straighten the fibers.

The paddles are gently brushed against each other in a rhythmic motion to transfer the fibers back and forth, effectively blending them together.

Hand carders come in different sizes and densities of wire teeth. Coarse carders are used for initial carding, while fine carders are used for further blending and smoothing of the wool fibers. It is important to choose the right type of hand carders based on the type of wool you are working with and the desired outcome of your yarn.

Carding Wool into Rolags

Once you have a good understanding of hand carders, you can begin carding the wool into rolags. Rolags are small, cylindrical rolls of carded wool that are ready for spinning. To create rolags, start by taking a small section of carded wool and rolling it up tightly.

Then, gently pull the rolled wool off the carders and repeat the process until you have a collection of rolags.

Carding wool into rolags helps to further align the fibers and create a consistent texture throughout the wool. It also makes it easier to spin the wool into yarn. The size and thickness of the rolags can vary depending on personal preference and the type of yarn you want to create.

Remember, practice makes perfect when it comes to carding wool. It may take some time to get the hang of using hand carders and creating rolags, but with patience and persistence, you’ll soon be able to create beautiful, high-quality wool yarn.

Spinning the Wool into Yarn

Once you have obtained your raw wool, the next step is to spin it into yarn. This process involves twisting the fibers together to create a continuous thread that can be used for knitting, crocheting, or weaving.

There are two popular methods for spinning wool: using a spinning wheel and using a drop spindle.

Spinning with a Spinning Wheel

A spinning wheel is a traditional tool used for spinning wool into yarn. It consists of a large wheel that is turned by a foot pedal, which in turn, rotates a spindle. The spinner uses their hands to draft the fibers (pull them apart) and then feeds them onto the spindle.

As the wheel turns, the spinner controls the tension and twist of the yarn by adjusting the speed and direction of the wheel. Spinning with a spinning wheel allows for faster production of yarn compared to other methods.

There are various types of spinning wheels available, including the traditional Saxony wheel, the castle wheel, and the modern electric spinning wheel. Each type has its own unique features and advantages, so it’s important to choose one that suits your spinning style and preferences.

If you’re new to spinning, it’s recommended to start with a beginner-friendly spinning wheel that is easy to operate and maintain.

Using a Drop Spindle

If you prefer a simpler and more portable spinning method, using a drop spindle might be the right choice for you. A drop spindle is a handheld tool that consists of a weighted circular disc or whorl attached to a long shaft.

To spin yarn with a drop spindle, you start by attaching a length of prepared wool to the shaft. Then, you spin the spindle and allow the weight of the whorl to twist the fibers together as you draft them.

Once the yarn has reached the desired thickness, you wind it onto the shaft and continue spinning.

Drop spindles come in various sizes and weights, allowing for different spinning techniques and yarn thicknesses. They are portable and easy to use, making them a popular choice for spinners on the go.

Plus, using a drop spindle can be a meditative and calming experience, as you focus on the repetitive motion of spinning the fibers into yarn.

Whether you choose to spin with a spinning wheel or a drop spindle, the process of transforming raw wool into yarn is a rewarding one. It allows you to create unique and personalized yarns that can be used for a wide range of projects.

So, gather your materials, get spinning, and let your creativity flow!

Plying and Finishing the Yarn

Creating 2-Ply or More Yarn

After spinning the wool fibers into single strands, the next step in making wool yarn is plying. Plying involves twisting two or more single strands together to create a stronger and more durable yarn.

This process is essential for ensuring that the final yarn can withstand the wear and tear of knitting or crocheting projects.

To ply the yarn, start by securing the ends of the single strands to a spinning wheel or drop spindle. Then, spin the wheel or spindle in the opposite direction to the one used in spinning the single strands. As the wheel or spindle turns, the single strands will twist together, forming a 2-ply yarn.

For those looking to create thicker or more robust yarn, additional plies can be added. To create 3-ply yarn, for example, three single strands would be twisted together. The same principle applies to creating 4-ply or more yarn. Each additional ply adds strength and stability to the final yarn.

Washing, Drying, and Steaming the Yarn

Once the plying is complete, the next step is to wash and finish the yarn. This step is crucial for removing any dirt or oils that may be present in the wool fibers and ensuring the yarn is clean and ready for use.

To wash the yarn, fill a basin or sink with lukewarm water and add a small amount of gentle detergent. Gently agitate the yarn in the water, being careful not to tangle or stretch it. After a few minutes, drain the water and refill the basin with clean water to rinse the yarn.

Repeat this process until the water runs clear.

After rinsing, gently squeeze out the excess water from the yarn. Avoid wringing or twisting the yarn, as this can cause it to lose its shape. Instead, gently press the yarn between towels to remove the water.

Once the yarn is no longer dripping wet, it can be hung up to dry. Choose a well-ventilated area away from direct sunlight to prevent fading. Allow the yarn to air dry completely before proceeding to the next step.

For those looking to add extra softness and smoothness to the yarn, steaming is an optional step. Using a handheld steamer or a steam iron on a low setting, gently pass the steam over the yarn, being careful not to touch it directly. This will help relax the fibers and give the yarn a softer feel.

By following these steps, you can successfully ply and finish your wool yarn, creating a beautiful and versatile material for your knitting or crocheting projects.


With proper wool selection, scouring, carding, spinning, plying, and finishing, you can create your own custom wool yarns to use in knitting, crochet, weaving, and other fiber arts. While making yarn from scratch takes time, practice, and patience, the ability to control every step of the process gives you creative freedom when crafting.

We hope this guide has helped illuminate the entire wool yarn making process from fleece to finished yarn. Happy spinning!

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